The anthropometry is the Treaty of proportions and measures of the human body.
As such, anthropometry is a science that studies the measures and dimensions of different parts of the human body since they vary from one individual to another according to their age, sex, race, socioeconomic level, and so on.
Etymologically, the word anthropometry is of Greek origin “ anthropos“ that means “man” and ” métron ” that expresses “measure” and the suffix “-ia ” that refers to “quality”. As stated above, it refers to the study of the measures and proportions of the human body.
Anthropometry is related to the studies of physical or biological anthropology, which deals with analyzing the genetic and biological aspects of the human being, be it groups, races, and comparing them to each other.
By virtue of the above, this science arises in the eighteenth century in order to differentiate individuals by their races or groups, but it was in the year 1870 that such science is discovered by the publication of the work “Anthropometry”, of the Belgian mathematician Quételet, and finally in 1940 it was consolidated in view of the global war panorama, since it was used for the design of objects and spaces used by men in which each one contemplated different dimensions due to age, sex, race, etc.
In view of its function, anthropometry is classified into two types: structural and functional. In relation to the first, it is responsible for head, log, and limb measurements in standard positions. For its part, the functional part takes measures while time is in motion, both functions are completed by offering measurements of the individual and the environment he needs to develop his daily activities.
At this point, it is important to mention the “vitruvian man” , drawing by Leonardo Da Vinci, in the year 1490. It represents a naked human figure inscribed in a circle and a square, taking into account the proportions of the human body indicated in the architectural texts of the architect of ancient Rome Vitruvius. By virtue of this, the study of the symmetry of the human body by Leonardo Da Vinci and other authors is considered as an achievement of the Renaissance.
Anthropometry is used in different areas such as food, sports, clothing, ergonomics, architecture, among others. For this, anthropometric records are made in which it records the measurements and dimensions of the human body, statue, weight, among other measures, which allows to obtain a statistic of the physical changes of man and the differences between races.
Currently, anthropometry is applied in various areas of medicine to study diseases and abnormalities that affect the dimensions of the human body. In relation to this point, others work together with this science, such as: childcare in the development of the children’s body.
Anthropometry and ergonomics
Anthropometry and ergonomics are two sciences that complement each other, since ergonomics is responsible for adapting products, work areas, the home and others to the needs of individuals, which is essential the results of the science of anthropometry , by providing the measures and dimensions of the different parts of the human body in order to design appropriate products and spaces for individuals.
Ergonomics uses anthropometry techniques to adapt the work environment to the human being, such as in the elaboration of chairs, tables, and other objects always taking that everyone must adapt to the human body.
Anthropometry techniques can also be used as a tool to assess the nutritional status of the individual. The anthropometric study or the bio anthropometric measurements allows to calculate a series of measures such as height, weight, BMI, muscle component, adipose component, body water, among others, and thus obtain information about the individual’s body and nutritional status, which allows treating in the case of their existence of certain physical deficiencies or aptitudes, especially before starting a physical training program.
They are measuring instruments that allow us to know the state of body and organic health you are in before starting a physical or sports training program, and provides preventive information to treat certain physical and physical fitness deficiencies.
Anthropometry in architecture
The architecture works based on the results provided by anthropometry, since the first as it is known is responsible for creating and designing spaces to be inhabited or enjoyed by man in his day to day, so it is essential that the individual feel comfortable in space in relation to your scale.
For example; When the architect designs the room, it must be ensured that there is space so that a bed, cabinets, bedside table can be placed, as well as a remaining space so that the individual can move without any inconvenience in his bedroom.