What is Schism?
Schism is a term used to refer to the separation or division of the members of an organization or community.
The word schism derives from the Latin schisma , and this in turn from the Greek σχίσμα ( schísma ), which is translated as “split” or “separation”. As a synonym for schism, the words rupture, division, division, separation, discord or hostility can be used.
A schism can happen in any organization, movement or community, be it religious, political or cultural, in which its members disagree with the imposed doctrines and make the decision to separate or leave this group.
For example, “There was a schism in the organization due to the change in payment regulations”; “The unions are close to a schism due to lack of representatives”; “There is a schism in the government because of corruption.”
Schism of the East and the West
In religion, the rupture of relations that occurred in the year 1054, between the Pope (maximum representative of the Roman Catholic Church), and the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople (representative of the Orthodox Church) is called as the East and West Schism .
In said Schism, both the patriarch Miguel Cerularius excommunicated Pope Leo IX, as well as the pope did with him, therefore, both representatives carried out mutual excommunication.
On the other hand, it should be noted that the Orthodox Church is the one that represents the eastern culture and Greek language and, the Catholic Church is the one that belongs to the western culture of the Latin language.
Now, this historical fact is also known as the Great Schism, since it was an important religious and cultural event that caused the division of the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church.
However, this division was already brewing several years earlier when, in 589, it was held at the Third Council of Toledo in which the term Filioque was coined , translated as “and of the Son”.
This generated controversy, since in the Catholic Church it was interpreted that the Holy Spirit comes from the Father and the Son, but that in the Orthodox Church it is maintained that The Holy Spirit only comes from the Father.
Then, between 1378 and 1417, the Western Schism took place in which the authorities of the Catholic Church disputed the papal authority and, which also led years later, in 1517, to the Protestant Reformation initiated by Martin Luther.